connected, and political theory has a religious and theological motivation. That implies “Al-Mawardi’s Theory of the Caliphate”, Sir Hamilton Gibb has pointed. Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi known in Latin as Alboacen ( CE), was an Islamic jurist of the Shafi’i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil. the Mu’tazila school of thought, the great (orthodox) Shafi’i jurist al-Subki (d. /) start a discussion philosophically about political ethics and Muslim character First, al-Mawardi influenced by philosophical thought.
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Caliphin Islamic historythe ruler of the Muslim community. Al-Mawardi fairly discusses the different opinions of the jurists whether or not the Caliph is entitled to designate one of his sons or relations as his successor and whether he acts legally in doing so. The Caliph is, however, traditionally elected in the capital because the death of the previous Caliph is first known there, and political considerations require the immediate appointment of a new Caliph, and also because most people possessing the necessary qualifications for the Imamate generally reside there.
Al-Ahkam at-Sultaniyah Ordinances of Government 2. Muhtasib Police or ombudsman. He is very careful theoy choosing only those traditions which suit his purpose. His greatness lies in the fact that he received political opinions and traditions of the past and transformed them into a logical system.
The Wazarat of Execution: The great republic of Madina was built on the highest and purest ideals of democracy. He is of the view that there consensus on this point that the existing imam can nominate his successor.
The enforcement of criminal code of Holy Quran to ensure that the people do not outrage the prohibitions of God, and that the fundamental rights of men are not violated. The existence of two Imams contemporaneously is illegal.
Brockleman”al-Mawardi” in the Politiccal of Islam 2vol. This view is however, untenable on account of the fact that al-Mawardi is, truly speaking, not a philosopher, and is least interested in abstract thinking.
Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al- – Oxford Islamic Studies Online
A state where there is no justice, such states ever fall. He discards tyrannical attitude of the sovereign. It will secure his service this enabling him to decide without any fear or pressure.
He should help the sovereign in the state administration.
Khushal 20 July at Appointed as the chief judge over several districts near Nishapur in Iranand Baghdad itself, al-Mawardi also served as a diplomat for the Abbasid caliphs al-Qa’im and al-Qadir in negotiations with the Buyid emirs.
Imam must be a symbol of morality and justice. But there is no denying the fact that the people resented the autocratic trends in the statecraft and stood for their basic rights.
But unfortunately it is under the cover of this pre-text that throughout the last 13 centuries, adventurers and self-seekers have striven to carve out political fortunes for themselves. The mention of authority in this passage refers to the Caliph, especially because al-Mawardi had been raised to the high office of Aqda al-Qudat2 and represented the Caliph in his negotiations with the Buwaihids.
He explains various branches of government in the light of the teachings of the Holy Quran, hadiths and period of the pios caliphs. The difference between the Wazir and the Imam himself is that the Wazir of Delegation is not empowered to appoint anyone as his successor and the Imam, the highest authority; can dismiss the officers appointed by him.
Al-Mawardi clearly advocates revolt when the Imam either falls prey to sensual passions or becomes sceptic of the basic tenets of Islam. The Wazir of Delegation is the person in whom the Imam has the fullest confidence and to whom the powers of administration of the realm are delegated. One thing is quite clear from the writings of Al-Mawardi, that he is opposed to the claim of undisputed obedience to the Caliph.
Therefore, his physically fitness and sensitivity are must. This enumeration of the ten-fold functions of the Imam is arbitrary.
Mawardi says sovereign is in need of a good and honest colleague. A person of raw-opinion has no command. Wazir is the powerful assistant of the sovereign to assist him in state administration. Among the seven conditions which according to al-Mawardi must be fulfilled by a candidate, the seventh one, that is, the Quraishite descent is very important. It often engendered palace intrigues and gave rise to internecine wars and dynastic feuds.
Mawardi counts seven qualities for this office, which are honesty, confidence absence of greed, good relations with the people, theor and wisdom to understand truth, no luxury loving, diplomacy and experience.
Most unfortunately, under the cover of this pretext, the second civil war politucal Islam was fought by the Umayyads, the Hashimites, and Zubayrites. The Wazarat of Delegation: H appointed his manumitted slave, Hazrat Zaid bin Harithah, to take his place at the head of the Muslim army and at the same time ordered that is case of his death he should be replaced by Hazrat Jafar bin Ali Talib, after him Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawahah and in case he is also killed, the mantle of command should fall on the shoulders of whomever the soldiers might choose.
The notable mawarri here is that, while his predecessors and successors lay great emphasis on the first two points, viz, the safe-guard of religious principles and the dispensation of justice, as the principal duties of the Imam, al-Mawardi lays the main stress on the administrative responsibility for the carrying out of justice but also the greatest social organization to help promote the corporate life of men.
This practice during the reign of Abbasids engendered palace intrigues and induced destructive internecine wars and dynastic feuds. H the Prophet and the main duties of the Caliph are the safeguard of religion from all destructive propaganda and innovations and the proper organization of general polity.
This method is also suitable because an imam is nominated keeping in view the determined qualities. In Muslim history it mxwardi one the first scientific treatises on political science and State administration.
Quranic Verses give us general principles i. It taught for the first time the ideas of universal brotherhood and complete equality of men. And because the jurists failed to get sufficient material in the Quran to construct a detailed political theory, they spent greater pains in exploring the Sunnah and the archives of early Islamic History to realize their purpose.
The Wazir of Execution is similar to the Secretary to the Government in modern times.