no mood for political or military adventurism in the region.” Britain was concerned that the. Axis forces would gain a foothold in the region or that the Levant. Hichem Djait is professor emeritus of history at University of Tunis. His work La Grande Discorde: Religion et politique dans l’Islam des origines Djaït,Hichem. It is easy to discover that the best book there is on the subject is by the brilliant Tunisian scholar, Hichem Djait: La Grande Discorde, which.

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Region under the control of Muawiyah I. Therefore, each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic state to be in their area. They also felt that if there were peace, they would be arrested for the killing of Uthman. The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and the consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Eastern Roman Empire found itself struggling for survival. Hassan and Hussein were also guarding Uthman at the time.

While dealing with the Hihem, Ali found it disforde to build a disciplined army and effective state institutions to exert control over his areas and as a result later spent a lot of time fighting the Kharijites.

Uthman had been besieged in his palace for 49 days before he was killed. Grandr do not make this statement out of fear of death, but I am an aged man who fears for the women and children tomorrow if we are annihilated.

During the time of ‘Uthman, they had appointed Abu Musa al-Ash’ari as the Governor of Kufa and removed ‘Uthman’s governor before they started fighting Uthman Ali found it expedient to agree to this choice in order to ward off bloody dissensions in his army.

So the fighting stopped. Views Read Edit View history. The Arab tribes in Dhait were paid by the Persian Sassanids to act as mercenaries, while the Arab tribes in Syria were paid by discorre Byzantines to act as their mercenaries. Shahban, In his Islamic History A. Battle of the Camel. When Allah decides a matter, He carries it out whether His servants like it or not.


In Mesopotamia, many people hated the Syrians. Six months later inin the interest of peace, Hasan ibn Ali made a peace treaty with Muawiyah. It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated ggande Egyptian rebels in and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman’s successor Ali ibn Abi Talib.

First Fitna

Nasr b Muzahim, in one of the earliest sources states that al-Ashath ibn Qays, one of Ali’s key supporters and a Kufan, then stood up and said:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Every hicnem Ali tried to negotiate the Qurra and the Sabait started wars and launched night attacks, fearing that if there was peace, then they will be arrested.

Ali’s inability to punish the murderers of Uthman and Muawiyah’s refusal to pledge allegiance eventually led Ali to move his army north to confront Muawiyah.

The Persians maintained an Arab satellite state of Lakhm and the Byzantine Empire maintained the Arab satellite state of Ghassan, which they used to fight each other.

Finding the gate of Uthman’s house strongly guarded by his supporters, the Qurra climbed the back wall and sneaked inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. Aisha ‘s forces Muawiya ‘s forces. O company of Muslims!

The Camel Siffin Nahrawan. Archived from the original on Marwan was arrested but he later asked Hassan and Hussein for assistance and was released. In Ali’s forces finally moved against the Kharijites and they finally met in the Battle of Nahrawan.

You have seen what happened in the day which has passed. The Qurra then felt that Abu Musa al-Ashari could look after their interests better. He is right, by the Lord. The Qurra therefore felt obliged to defend their position in the new but rapidly changing society. Retrieved 21 September The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations.

Although Ali won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing. Three years later, and there came the inevitable blowback: Ali was convinced to make Kufa the capital. The Muslims are given the right to elect a caliph as they think best. Unlike many of the other companions of Muhammad, Ali had not been involved in the lw caravan trade and had less business and administrative experience. Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in When the time arrived for taking a decision about the caliphate, Amr bin al-A’as convinced Abu Musa al-Ashari that they should deprive both Ali and Mu’awiya of the caliphate, and give to the Muslims the right to elect the caliph.


Region under the control of Amr ibn al-As. The battle lasted three days.

Grande discorde

The Qurra received stipends varying between 2, and 3, dirhams, while the majority of the rest of the troops received only to dirhams. Abu Musa al-Ash’ari agreed to open the proceedings, and said, “We have devised a solution after a good deal of thought and it may put an end to all contention and separatist tendencies.

The Sassanid Dynasty in Persia had already collapsed. If we fight tomorrow, it will be the annihilation of the Arabs and the loss of what is sacred. In it some of the Arabs have been annihilated. Uthman only listened hicchem the advice of Marwan and Saeed bin Aas, and Marwan did his best to act as a barrier between Ali and Uthman.

In the Hasan-Muawiya treatyHasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he be just to the hrande and keep them safe and secure and after his death he does not establish a dynasty.

First Fitna – Wikipedia

There was also the movement towards more autonomous tribal groupings, which was particularly strong in Kufa, in Mesopotamia; they wanted to rule their own states. He was wounded by ibn Muljam’s poison-coated sword while prostrating in the Fajr prayer.

When the arbitrators assembled at Dumat al-Jandal, which lay midway between Kufa and Syria and had for that reason been selected as the place for the announcement of the decision, a series of daily meetings were arranged for them to discuss the matters in hand.