Alan Cruse’s book is published as part of a series of thematic glossaries devoted to different fields of This volume is concerned with two disciplines: semantics and pragmatics. 96), one would also expect to find “lexicography” and “lexicon” . consist of more than one lexical constituent; second that it should be a single minimal semantic constituent’ (Cruse ). ‘The principle of idiom is that a. Lexical semantics Lexical semantics studies the meanings of words; the focus here The account given here largely follows that given in Cruse ().

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In any particular circumstance, elxical member of a contradictory pair must be true and the other false. While there is some justification for such an analysis, there is intuitively a sense in which the overt argument structure of 1 is basic, and irreducible. To illustrate this point, consider the propositions It’s sematics dog and All bachelors are unmarried. Preface The aim of this book is not to present a unified theory of meaning in language I am not even sure that that would be a worthwhile projectbut alah survey the full range of semantic phenomena, in all their richness and variety, in such a way that the reader will feel, on completing the book, that he or she has made face-to-face contact with the undeniably messy ‘real world’ of meaning.

Meaning in Language : An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics

Yet this cannot be obtained by elaborating or completing the proposition expressed. For instance, if we crse acceleration as “rate of change of speed with time”, we incorporate the simpler notion “speed” into the definition. It will be noticed that the move in the above characterization was from meaning to contextual abnormality.

Consider the possibility that a certain type of delivery, not amounting to mispronunciation, may be a sign that the speaker is under the influence of some pharmacological substance. Mary has a persecution mania. References to this book Meaning and Grammar: The defining characteristic of paralinguistic signs will be taken here to be an extreme dependence on the accompanying language. So, in the first pair of sentences above, if it is true of some entity that it is a dog, then leixcal follows ineluctably that it is an wlan, and if it is not an animal, then there is no way it can be a dog.


Full text of “Alan Cruse”

We can distinguish two types of interactive modification; first, the endocentric type, where the resultant meaning is of the same basic type as one of the constituents, and the exocenrric type, where the resultant meaning is of a different basic type to either of the constituents.

CruseDavid Alan Cruse. It is easy to envisage a situation in which all four sentences give the same information. Mode refers to the difference between language characteristic of different channels, such as spoken, written, in the old days, telegraphic, and perhaps nowadays, e-mail.

These can all express the same proposition, provided, of course, that Mary is John’s sister, and that John is Peter’s uncle, and so on.

Tao marked it as to-read Aug 16, When faced with such a semaantics, the majority of people concede that they could, thus destroying the logical necessity of the relation. This is the case with “is the mother of”: It seems ,exical we assume that the missing argu- ments could in principle be supplied, but the speaker has not supplied them, presumably because they are not currently relevant, or perhaps in some cases because they are extremely obvious.

We shall say that doctor is a semi-converse of patient.

For instance, one may smile or frown while speaking, and this may well ‘modulate’ the message. We shall look further into the reasons for pleonasm in a later chapter: The essence of zeugma is the attempt to make a single expression do two semantic jobs at the same time.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organizations. This means, in particular, that the meaning of a linguistic expression is taken to arise from the fact that the latter gives access to a particular conceptual content.


The wasp is dead.

This means that if we wish to ascertain whether a John-sneeze- event has occurred, we need only observe happenings pertaining closely to John; we do not need to check semmantics, place, or temperature. Let us make the simplifying assumption that if a pin- pointed deviance is grammatical in nature, it will not prove possible to reduce it by contextual manipulation, for instance by interpreting it as metaphor, science fiction, or fairy-tale.

This type of correspondence is known as mapping. In the case described, it is certainly a kind of meaning, and language is used to convey it.

Lexical Semantics

This paint is red. Those aspects of gy meaning of a sentence which determine whether a state- ment the sentence is being used to make, in a particular situation, is true or false, are collectively known as the propositional content of the sentence.

Paul added it Sep 04, Describing Lexical Senses 1: Examples from other areas are: An example will make this clear. Obviously, in the case of It’s a dog and It’s an animal, the two occurrences of it must refer to the same entity for the logical relation to hold, and in the case of John killed the wasp and The wasp died, we must be talking about the same semantkcs, and the time references must be the same.

Linguistic Categorization John R. Consider the following putative entailments: