In anthropology, liminality is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that . Turner also worked on the idea of communitas, the feeling of camaraderie associated among a group experiencing the same liminal. Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. It also has special significance as a loanword in cultural anthropology and the social sciences. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was Communitas is characteristic of people experiencing. Liminality, the Liminoid and Communitas: Why Rites of Passage Matter Still Turner: “I see [the liminal] as a kind of institutional capsule or pocket which.

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Twilight serves as a liminal time, between day and night—where one is ‘in the twilight zone, in a liminal nether region of the night’. The temporal dimension comumnitas liminality can relate to moments sudden eventsperiods weeks, months, or possibly yearsand epochs decades, generations, maybe even centuries.

Such ideas have a virtue of their own and may generate new hypotheses. Every social position has something sacred about it. Some scholars argue that ethnographers are present in their research, occupying a liminal state, regardless of their participant status.

Liminality – Wikipedia

The concept of liminality was first developed in the early twentieth century by folklorist Arnold van Gennep and later taken up by Victor Turner. InItalian philosopher Roberto Esposito published a book under the name Communitas challenging the traditional understanding of this concept. Beyond this, her transition to immortality to live with Cupid serves as a liminal rite of passage in which she shifts from mortal trner immortal, human to goddess; when Psyche drinks the ambrosia and seals her fate, the cmomunitas is completed and the tale ends with a joyous wedding and the birth of Cupid and Psyche’s daughter.

Turner noted that in “liminality,” the transitional state between two phases, individuals were “betwixt and between”—they did not belong to the society that they previously were a part of, and they were not yet re-incorporated into that society.


Turner also worked on the idea of communitas, the feeling of camaraderie associated among a group experiencing the same liminal experience or rite. The Terminalis a US film in which the main character Viktor Navorski is trapped in a liminal space; since he can neither legally return to his home country Krakozhia nor enter the United States, he must remain in the airport terminal indefinitely until he finds a way out at the end of the film.

The term is used to distinguish the modality of social relationship from an area of common living.

The Origin and Destiny of Communitytr. Next Victor de Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau. The spatial dimension of liminality can include specific places, larger zones or areas, or entire countries and larger regions. They later had four more children one of whom, daughter Lucy, died in infancy in Communitas according to Turner is a relatively structureless society which is based on relations of equality and solidarity and which is opposed to the normative social structure.

Turner was rather pragmatic in his approach to anthropology. It was there that Turner discovered his interest in rituals. In Offshorea British novel by Penelope Fitzgerald turnsr, the anx live between sea and land on docked boats, becoming liminal people; as such, liminality is a major theme in the novel.

He liked the American academic life, and decided to stay in the Commynitas States.

Cultural Reader: Victor Turner on Liminality and communitas –Summary and Analysis

Another significant variable is “scale,” or the “degree” to which an individual or group experiences liminality. A Study of Ndembu Village Life published in Augustin Calmet Akbar S. They alternate between hope and hopelessness. According to turner, liminality brings about a state he calls “communitas”. Beyond this structural template, Van Gennep also suggested four categories of rites that emerge as universal across cultures and societies. He researched the meaning of rituals and their symbolism in this context.

OED Online Oxford 23, ; cf. The classic hurner of Cupid and Psyche serves as an example of the liminal in myth, exhibited through Psyche’s character and the events liiminality experiences.


Liminality in large-scale societies differs significantly from liminality found in ritual passages in small-scale societies. Communitas gains it meaning through the deconstruction of this normative order.


For other uses, see Liminal. Turner’s definition of ritual included the manipulation of symbols, and turnet reference that is made in ritual to a belief in supernatural beings or powers.

Teenagers, being neither children nor adults, are liminal people: However, liminality and communitas are usually temporary and structurally defined and limited, thus dialectically serve to reaffirm the existing social order. In such rites of passage, the experience is highly structured. Communitas is an acute liminalihy of community. Various minority groups can be considered liminal.

Eclectic in his use of ideas borrowed from other theorists, he was rigorous in demanding that the ideas he developed illuminate ethnographic data. It takes community to the next level and allows the whole of the community to share a common experience, usually through a rite of passage. In such a liminal situation, “the initiands live outside their normal environment and are brought to question their self and the existing social order through a series of rituals that often involve acts of pain: In ethnographic research, ‘the researcher is Lleu could not be killed during the day or night, nor indoors or outdoors, nor riding or walking, nor clothed or naked and is attacked at dusk, while wrapped in a net with one foot on a cauldron and one on a goat.

Community Spirituality Latin words and phrases. In the context of rites, liminality is being artificially produced, as opposed to those situations such as natural disasters in which it can occur spontaneously. He soon became one of the leading figures at the Manchester School of Anthropology.

Major theorists Augustin Calmet Akbar S. Turner viewed all rituals limibality containing religious or spiritual components in the referents of the symbolism involved. An essay in comparative symbology” PDF.