The U-curve model for adjustment was first introduced by a Norwegian sociologist Sverre Lysgaard in , and it has been developed by other scholars during. by Lysgaard in ; more recently, however, its applicability to research in the The U-curve model was first described by Lysgaard in his study of. “Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fullbright grantees visiting the United States.” by Sverre Lysgaard, International Social.

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After a couple of years in Denmark, Sandra recalls, she wanted to distance herself from Danish culture. The general purpose of my analysis is to check the model of cultural adaptation proposed by Sverre Lysgaard in the article “Adjustment in a Foreign Society: While one has been staying abroad, there may have been changes in the home country’s political situation, technology, or popular culture, for instance.

The discussion of cultural adaptation presupposes a definition of the concept of identity. Although she had been in Denmark for 22 years at the time of the interview, Sandra would still sense this homesickness at times, even if she had realised that a return was no longer a practical solution.

It awakens the sojourner from the complacency of the holiday stage and forces him or her to confront fundamental differences in cultural norms and values.

When comparing Scotland to Denmark, the expatriates describe their home country as an old-fashioned, masculine culture and generally prefer a more equal relationship between man and woman. In order to cope with lysgzard position, which in a way excludes them from a full membership of their native as well as their host culture, the Scots construct a new identity.

The second lesson to be drawn from my discussion concerns the length of the acculturation process. In Scotland young professionals do not wear waterproofs — except if they are on the golf course or in the hills. The most common change of values for the Scots is the lysgarad of a Danish view on gender relations. Because they have gained a new cultural perspective, the sojourners may find it difficult to settle into their old ways. The previous discussion has been an attempt to measure the abstract concepts of cultural theory against the very real experiences of cultural adaptation narrated by seven Scottish immigrants in Denmark.


Within the group I have managed to obtain an acceptable distribution in terms of age from 25 to 44 years oldgender 3 women, 4 menprofessional occupation workers, professionals, independents and public employees and immigrant experience from 2 years to My final problem is quotations. In other words, immigration within the same cultural region — i. Sections Search Home Ohjelmat Infoa. First of all, everything said by my interviewees was filtered by me as note-taker.

According to the methodological categories established by Dr. lysgaxrd

In a cultural No Man’s Land – or, how long does culture shock last

This model presents a simplified version of reality, however, which cannot always account for the real-life situations I encountered in my field work. When I started collecting my information, I never planned to impose a super-structure on my data, but as my interviewees kept returning to similar themes, I ended up with this model. Nakata and Yili Huang Pokay in their recent survey ljsgaard global marketing literature, Lygsaard will characterise my method as empirical qualitative Nakata and Pokay The two-year crisis arises from the unanswered questions that have been allowed to accumulate during the first part of the encounter.

With regard to cultural assimilation, an early concern for many sojourners is the establishment of a social network.

U-curve — Moniviestin

The interview process represents an identity construction in which I, as interviewer, provoke certain responses by asking specific questions about the nature of Scottish identity in Denmark. At this point it is important that companies help these individuals re-establish a sense of belonging.

This is a critical point where the shock can develop into a rejection of the host culture or acceptance and adjustment to new surroundings. The second difference concerns the process of acculturation itself.

Its symptoms may be physical illness and physical strain as well as psychological frustration, homesickness, depression Varner and Beamer On his arrival in a new country, year-old George recalls the strange feeling he had when crossing the border without anyone asking him why he wanted to come here.


In order to use the intercultural skills developed lywgaard sojourners in the course of their integration, I suggest that companies consider a minimum length of three years for international assignments.

In a cultural No Man’s Land –

It is all part of the process. When examining the data offered by the interviewees, I may have attempted to impose a structure on my material, connecting interview fragments that are not necessarily compatible.

Although their lysgaaard assimilation was fast, the Scots agreed that adaptation only really took off after the culture shock endured during the second year, and that their cultural adjustment never really ended.

Some of my interviewees already had connections in the form of Danish partners, who helped them settle into their new place. A second problem is structure.

They will lysgaarr local authorities in the form of their GP, tax officers and various municipal bodies, but as they normally have a job upon their arrival — or will find one very soon thereafter — they are perceived as a positive addition to the local workforce rather than a potential burden.

I suppose I expected references to more explicit parts of Scottish culture such as kilts, bagpipes, national history, and politics.

It is thus important to recognise that the timing of this crisis depends on individual circumstances, which is not clear from my terminology. Such changes occur at the subconscious level and are unlikely to show in a quantitative survey. They belong to the group of “Euro-Europeans” defined by the Danish anthropologists Anne Knudsen and Lizanne Wilken as “the employees of international companies, supernational organisations and news agencies, exchange students, sojourning business men and women, researchers working in the European research institutions — and anyone else, who happens to live and work in another European country” Lhsgaard and Wilken An example of this is offered by Fiona, who in the interview recalls how on a visit to Britain it dawned upon her that she looked and dressed differently.